Independent Study: Citing Electronic References


You MUST acknowledge all sources of information. If you quote directly from a print or electronic source, the passage must be clearly identified, and the source acknowledged. Submitting any work that is taken from other sources and not cited, is called Plagiarism and will result in a failing grade.

According to APA (the format we use at Coady), this is the correct method of citing an electronic text within the body of your source review:

Individual Author:

Direct Quote:

Michael Welton, in his article describing Father Jimmy Tompkins, states: "In 1912 Tompkins returned from a British universities meeting held at Oxford ablaze with desire to carry the university to the people. It was dawning on Tompkins that adult education could precipitate a cultural awakening in men's and women's hearts and souls. Foreshadowing the concerns of late twentieth popular educators, Tompkins maintained that workers would be dominated and exploited unless they got knowledge for themselves. Education was the way to power." (Welton, 2003, para. 8)

(Note: There is a note at the bottom of the webpage stating the page was updated in 2003, so I will use that date. Since web pages often don't have page numbers, count the number of paragraphs on the page, and note the paragraph number of the section you are citing. The paragraph I quoted is the eighth paragraph on the web page.)


Inspired by the ideas he learned at Oxford, Father Jimmy Tompkins promoted the importance of education as a means of empowering the people. Without education, workers would continue to be oppressed. (Welton, 2003)

I am not quoting directly, so I don't need the page number.

Reference List:

Welton, M. (2003). Father Jimmy Tompkins. Retrieved October 5, 2004, from the National Louis University website,

"Corporate" or Organization Author:

Original Quote:

"The neo- liberals justify liberalization of trade on the premise that competition from imports leads to specialization and efficient allocation of resources while cleansing the economy of inefficient producers, thus removing the burden on society of sustaining such entities. With greater openness, small economies, it is argued, tend to have higher shares of trade in their gross national product (GNP) than do large countries and gain more than those nations that restrict trade." (SAPRIN, 2002, p.27)

Paraphrase, with brief quote:

SAPRIN, in their 2002 report on structural adjustment, explain the rationale of neo-liberals who promote free trade as a way of making the economies of small nations stronger by "cleansing the economy of inefficient producers" (p.27).

Reference List:

Structural Adjustment Participatory Review International Network (SAPRIN), (2002). The Policy roots of economic crisis and poverty: a multi-country participatory assessment of structural adjustment. Retrieved, October 6, 2004, from The SAPRIN website,

Electronic Version of a Published Article:

Farer, T. (2003). The ethics of intervention in self-determination struggles. Human Rights Quarterly, 25(2), 382-406. Retrieved October 5, 2004, from ProQuest Research Library database,