GENDER AND SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT:
A Resource Directory


The complete Directory contains approximately 80 substantial entries. These entries are arranged alphabetically by title.

You may wish to use the 'Search' or 'Find' feature of your Web browser to locate particular key words.


Annotated bibliography on gender, rapid rural appraisal and participatory rural appraisal

AUTHOR(S): BRIDGE (Briefings in Development and Gender)
IMPRINT: Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 1994, 17 p., BRIDGE Bibliography 6.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, PRA/RRA

SUMMARY:

An annotated bibliography containing approximately 45 titles from the first half of the 1990s.

Reviewed By: Rachel Masika, BRIDGE Information Officer, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.


Changing roles and statuses of women in Thailand: a documentary assessment

AUTHOR(S): Yoddumnern-Attig, B., Richter, K., et al.
IMPRINT: Nakhon Pathom, Thailand: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, 1992. 128 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: History/Theory

SUMMARY:

Using a framework entitled "Seven Roles and Statuses of Women", various Thai scholars and academics examine the historical roots of women's roles and summarize the literature on Thai women in the family as mothers, wives, and daughters, and in the community as workers and public figures.

COMMENTS:

The framework could potentially provide considerable insights into Thai gender relations; however, there is more description than analysis of women's historical roles and of role differences between urban and rural women. Given that Thailand, like other countries in Southeast Asia, is experiencing a "youth boom", the two chapters most relevant to contemporary social conditions are chapter 5 which discusses gender roles in the care of the elderly, and chapter 6 which describes adolescent role behaviour. Both chapters illustrate how gender inequality is rooted in family socialization and the formal and informal education system. Although religious beliefs are also cited as being a significant influence, the lack of any further discussion is disappointing. The differing viewpoints of the contributors suggests that the interpretation of gender relations in Thailand is as contentious as in western society. For example, one author stresses women's authority in the domestic sphere, while another argues that men as the head of the household are the "primary decision makers" and that even within the home women remain "the passive partners of men". Although males are seldom mentioned in this book, the authors do highlight pertinent questions about the changing relationships between Thai women and men.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Creating alternatives: women and work

IMPRINT: New Delhi: Society for Participatory Research in Asia, 1987. 24 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Group Building, Savings & Credit.

SUMMARY:

This booklet is based on information collected at a workshop that evaluated Oxfam-supported projects in India and Bangladesh. The workshop was held in Bangladesh in 1986.

Included are brief descriptions of women's participation in income generating activities. These include rural credit schemes, land tenure, as well as assistance to rural artisans and small livestock keepers.

A key factor for developing programs, according to the authors, is to construct organizational models to empower women. This includes assessing the appropriate time to organize, who to involve and the process of organization itself. Different forms are described ranging from small, village-level informal groups to legally registered co-operatives and unions.

COMMENTS:

The issues are not explored in detail, but the booklet provides a clear introduction to these concepts with supporting case studies as illustration.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Draft training manual on cost-effective targeting (the identification and motivation of poor women in credit and savings programs)

AUTHOR(S): Tomlinson, Wayne and Gibbons, David S., editors.
IMPRINT: Dhaka: Grameen Trust, 1995. 36 p. + appendices
MATERIAL TYPE: Training Material, Manual
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Education, Group Building, Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:

A key to the success of Grameen Bank and similar rural credit programmes is the identification and motivation of potential participants to ensure effective support to those most in need. This manual, one in a series produced by the Grameen Bank, is designed to teach management skills to help credit programs avoid wasting time and money due to improper participant selection.

Women are considered to be vitally important in the success of these credit schemes. Experience has shown that they have a high success rate in repayment of loans, effective loan utilization and redistribution of surplus income to the family and community. Further, those most in need are usually more reliable than others in terms of ensuring that collective goals are met.

Exclusive targeting of participants like this is often criticized for being expensive due to the labour-intensive fieldwork required. However, the authors argue that this need not be the case. Clear procedures and examples are provided for conducting needs assessments and evaluating assets and liabilities, that can be accomplished quickly in a cost-effective way.

Motivation is crucial to get people involved and committed to stay in the programmes. Suggestions are provided for helping participants identify their own needs and potential benefits that can develop into an empowering process for them.

COMMENTS:

Includes exercises to illustrate concepts and strategies described.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


The Effects of tobacco growing in Arua District

AUTHOR(S): Lugalambi, George
JOURNAL: Arise, Issue No 8, Oct-Dec, 1992, 20-21, 24
MATERIAL TYPE: Journal Article
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Health

SUMMARY:

Women are primarily responsible for the survival of tobacco crops, yet men claim ownership of these crops and the income from them. This article describes the work conditions women face, and the cultural sanctions that exist to prevent women from gaining more control. Limited access to education is identified as a key factor.

Activities carried out by women include preparing the field for planting, ensuring the crop gets sufficient water, transporting harvest to storage facilities, and curing and processing the leaves. This last stage is particularly harmful to the women workers as they are exposed to high amounts of nicotine-laden dust. Education and protective equipment are seldom provided. There is little economic benefit for the intense labour output.

COMMENTS:

Provides a concise, critical description of the hardships women face in their work with tobacco crop agriculture. It is a background document describing current conditions and does not explore alternatives to enhance women's situation in this activity.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


The Emancipation of women: an African perspective

AUTHOR(S): Dolphyne, Florence Abena
IMPRINT: Accra: Ghana Universities Press, 1995, c1991. 107 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Co-operatives, Fisheries, Microenterprise

SUMMARY:

This book examines traditional practices that disadvantage women in Africa. Marriage practices including bride wealth, child marriage, purdah, polygamy, widowhood and inheritance are examined as well as fertility issues and female circumcision. Critiquing some western feminist assumptions, the authors argue that it is not enough to call for a ban of these discriminatory practices, but to change prevailing conditions so that they become unneccessary. For example, increasing opportunities for economic independence among women would reduce their dependence on certain oppressive marriage practices. Recent changes in inheritance laws are examined and further reforms are proposed.

Recommendations are made for the promotions of women's rights in several spheres, such as politics, education, access to income generating activities and agriculture. More opportunities for training are needed as well as increased access to land and credit. One loan programme is described. In food processing, a gari-processing project is evaluated. Lessons learned from the problems faced by this cooperative are presented. Confidence building is a critical factor in the implementation and management of projects.

COMMENTS:

Includes recommendations for both national and non-governmental organisations to assist women's projects.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Estrategia de mercadeo: enterenamiento para empresarias

AUTHOR(S): OEF en America Central
IMPRINT: New York: UNIFEM, 1991.
MATERIAL TYPE: Manual
LANGUAGE: Spanish
SUBJECTS: Microentrprise

SUMMARY:

A very practical guide to simulation exercises and games which can be used for female microentrepreneurs. Ten lessons include how to approach business problems, scoping the market and improving skills. Pictures and diagrams are ready to photocopy.

COMMENTS:

I have found this very useful in my fieldwork.

Reviewed by: Nanci Lee, International Rural Development Planning, University of Guelph


FAIDIKA! : Business training for women's groups the Tototo way

AUTHOR(S): Kane, Kevin, et al.
IMPRINT: Mombasa, Kenya: Tototo Home Industries; Boston: World Education, 1990. 66 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Education, Microenterprise, Monitoring & Evaluation, Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:

This training manual is designed to develop business skills among extension workers and village entrepreneurs. "Faidika", meaning "profit", aims to enhance both monetary and community conditions. Specific training needs for women are presented. These were developed through work with women's groups in Swaziland, Tanzania, Somalia and Kenya.

Lessons include: business start-up, profit and loss, cash control, monitoring and evaluation, marketing, feasibility, bookkeeping, reducing costs, wages and dividends. Examples of various rural enterprises are presented along with role play suggestions. The emphasis is on participatory, consensus-based decision making and problem solving.

COMMENTS:

Provides concise, step-by step lesson plans to aid in the development of community- level business training programs for women. Includes overviews of key concepts.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Fishers, traders, farmers, wives: the life stories of ten women in a fishing village

AUTHOR(S): Illo, Jeanne Frances I. and Polo, Jaime B.
IMPRINT: Manila: Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University, 1990. 136 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Fisheries

SUMMARY:

This book summarizes the findings of research conducted to develop a better understanding of rural women's work in the Philippines; in particular, the importance this work has in family survival strategies.

A profile of coastal communities is presented, as well as the extent of women's work, attitudes, economic patterns, education, etc. Women's survival strategies recognize the need for multiple sources of income, including the fishery, wage labour, and farming. Also, traditional gender segregated labour patterns are breaking down as women take on "male" jobs, and men accept more domestic work. Compared to other Southeast Asian countries, there is a relatively high female participation rate in education.

Lessons for development are provided, such as recognizing the need to focus development strategies on communities as a whole rather than single economic sectors. Focusing only on fisheries projects can ignore other factors that can upset a fragile balance developed by women to ensure economic security for their families and communities. The researchers call for a greater understanding of women's roles in maintaining this balance, and how they adapt to changing conditions. Greater women's involvement in the design of projects is needed to promote projects that ensure that communities are sustainable as a whole.

COMMENTS:

Includes detailed case studies and brief statistical data.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Gender and adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa

AUTHOR(S): Baden, Sally
IMPRINT: Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 1993.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture

SUMMARY:

This brief report surveys current thinking on adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly with regard to poverty and gender considerations. Gender issues are discussed in relation to agriculture and rural development and the social sector reforms under adjustment. The final section looks at gender in relation to programs designed to alleviate the social costs of adjustment. It concludes with a number of policy recommendations. Some illustrative statistics are provided.

Reviewed By: Rachel Masika, BRIDGE Information Officer, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.


Gender and tribe: women, land and forests in Jharkhand

AUTHOR(S): Kelkar, Govind and Nathan, Dev
IMPRINT: New Delhi: Kali for Women; London: Zed, 1991. 187 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Forestry, Land Tenure

SUMMARY:

This is a study of the deteriorating status of tribal women in India due to deforestation and displacement from traditional agricultural lands. The tribal bands in the region of study, Jharkhand, range from primarily foraging-based subsistence to primarily agricultural-based subsistence. A description of their varying practices, domestic and food production labour, communal land systems are described.

Women's traditional land rights and access to labour have been eroded through a number changes caused by colonial rule and modern development. Women have been excluded from most political movements, thus their voice is often actively repressed. Current strategies for "sustainable development" are ignoring women's historical role in the forest economy. Further, these strategies do nothing to challenge the capitalist structures that caused massive forest depletion in the first place. The authors argue that community ownership models are necessary to ensure the viability of forest management. Economic models of exchange rather than profit will have the primary goal of ensuring that community needs are met.

COMMENTS:

Detailed anthropological study.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


The Gender dimension in environment and development policy: the Southeast Asian Experience

AUTHOR(S): Wee, V.
IMPRINT: Singapore: ENGENDER, Centre for Environment, Gender and Development, 1995. 36 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Discussion Paper
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Economics, Environment

SUMMARY:

Using case studies drawn from 7 different Asian countries, the author links national, regional, and international economic policies with environment issues and shows how these fuel the feminisation of poverty. The case studies address: loss of land and destruction of the natural resource base such as forests; the negative impact of the introduction of new technology; women as a source of cheap labour; health disparities among the rich and poor; the environmental impact of industrialization; and the shift from a subsistence based to a cash based economy. An analysis of specific economic policies and environmental issues follows each case study. A bibliography is included.

COMMENTS:

Paper presented at the Northeast Asia-Southeast Asia Consultation on Development and Environment, Bangkok, October 20-22, 1995. This paper is drawn from the book by Wee and Heyzer (1995) Gender Poverty and Sustainable Development, published for the Fourth World Conference on Women.

This is a complex, multi-faceted paper which explodes the myth that long-term sustainable, equitable development can result from the current push to industrialization, globalization and "free trade" in Asia. Wee explains in detail how market oriented economic development is further marginalizing the poor and endangering the lives of future generations by destroying the resource base that sustains us. The case studies, selected from various publications, are fairly short and could be used in gender training workshops.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Gender profile of Zambia

AUTHOR(S): Byrne, Bridget
IMPRINT: Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 1994. 47 p. BRIDGE Report 29.
MATERIAL TYPE: Report-Policy Briefing
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Economics

SUMMARY:

This report provides an overview of the situation of women in Zambia, noting their responsibility for agricultural production and household well-being.

Reviewed By: Rachel Masika, BRIDGE Information Officer, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.


Gender relations analysis: a guide for trainers

AUTHOR(S): Rani Parker, A., Lozano, I., Messner, L.A.
IMPRINT: Westport, CT: Save the Children; New York: Women Ink, 1995. 142 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Training Material
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development/Education

SUMMARY:

This is a manual for a five day gender training workshop for community workers which focuses on the importance of understanding gender roles and relationships such as the division of labour, access and control of resources, and power in decision making. The manual is divided into three sections. The first outlines key gender concepts and includes references for further reading. Section 2 includes a session overview, daily schedule, detailed instructions for facilitating training activities, facilitator's flipcharts or overheads, and hand-outs for participants. Section 3 contains additional activities from Save teams from different countries which can be used to enrich training of trainers workshops.

COMMENTS:

Clearly laid out and easy to follow, this reference will be invaluable for both new and experienced gender trainers. The strength of this workshop manual lies in its participatory and critical approach to gender training. Clearly promoting the empowerment of women, this is one of the few training manuals to link gender inequity and power relations. Training activities are grounded in participants' own experience and conclusions are not pre-determined.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Gender sensitive planning: what, why and how in Nepal

AUTHOR(S): Shrestha, S. L.
IMPRINT: Kathmandu: Women's Awareness Centre Nepal (WACN), 1994. 86 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development

SUMMARY:

The author uses concepts such as condition and position, practical needs and strategic interests, division of labour, and access and control of benefits and resources to analyze gender relations in Nepal. The final section of the book describes how modified forms of gender tools such as the Harvard Framework, Moser method and the Gender Analysis Matrix can be applied to development projects.

COMMENTS:

This book provides valuable insights into the situation of women in Nepal as well as concrete examples which show how gender concepts can be applied. One weakness is that the author does not provide enough information for people unfamiliar with gender analysis to use the tools independently, nor are the tools clearly footnoted so that interested readers can consult the original publications.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Gender sensitivity in PRA

AUTHOR(S): Olson, Robert
JOURNAL: World Neighbors in Action: a newsletter for project personnel, Vol 24 No 2E, 8 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Journal Issue, Training Material
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: PRA/RRA

SUMMARY:

This newsletter summarizes longer papers written by World Neighbors staff describing how to use Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) activities to discuss gender issues with rural people. Examples of the use of mapping, 24 hour activity calendar, decision making, and access and control matrixes are provided.

COMMENTS:

The articles offer a clear, concise introduction to PRA and gender issues. Users who are not experienced with PRA or familiar with the application of these gender concepts, however, will most likely need to consult other references before implementing these activities. All of the examples appear to come from Africa. The newsletter states that an earlier issue of World Neighbors in Action describes some of the activities in more detail (Vol 24 No 1E)

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Gender training with men

AUTHOR(S): Bhasin, K.
IMPRINT: New Delhi: FFCH; FAO South Asian Programme, 1996. 16 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Discussion Paper
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Education

SUMMARY:

Paper presented at the Gender Training Assessment Meeting, Port Dickson, Malaysia, July 7-9, 1996. Sponsored by the Asian and Pacific Development Centre.

This article summarizes the experiences Bhasin and her co-facilitators have had in conducting six workshops for male administrators in India, Bangladesh and Nepal. She outlines the reasons which motivated them to begin gender training from a Southern perspective. The remainder of the article describes male participants' reactions to various components of the workshop and the facilitators' feelings and responses. The article concludes by highlighting the differences between gender workshops for women and men, and provides some suggestions for facilitators.

COMMENTS:

From setting the agenda, to introductions, making the personal political, challenging myths, negotiating the meaning of facts and experiences, Bhasin describes a critical approach to adult education in action. This article offers insights about the obstacles and barriers confronting facilitators conducting training with men, such as the belief that they already know everything they need to know, difficulty in discussing personal issues, or reluctance to apply theory to their own experience. Bhasin somewhat reluctantly concludes that male trainers may be more effective gender trainers with men and that a less direct, less "confrontational" approach may be necessary to foster attitudinal change.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Give us credit

AUTHOR(S): Counts, Alex
IMPRINT: New Delhi: Research Press, 1996. 361 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Co-operatives, Economics, Group Building, Microenterprise, Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:

This is a new book on the Grameen Bank. It is an unprecedented insider's look into the founding and operations of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh and its adoption in a poor neighbourhood in Chicago, the third largest metropolis in the USA.

COMMENTS:

The role of microenterprise as an effective engine of economic development is now well recognized. Historically, microenterprises played a dominant role in bringing about economic change including social awareness and human development. This book is essential for development workers.

Reviewed By: Md. Tazemul Haque, Assistant General Manager, Technology and Development, Grameen Bank, Dhaka, Bangladesh.


The Green Belt Movement: sharing the approach and the experience

AUTHOR(S): Maathai, Wangari
IMPRINT: Nairobi: Environment Liaison Centre International, 1988. 69 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Forestry, Environment

SUMMARY:

Maathai, a founder of the Green Belt Movement, presents a brief overview of this community-based tree planting programme in Kenya. Established by the National Council of Women of Kenya, the purpose of the programme is to address a range of socio-economic and environmental problems including: need for firewood, soil erosion & desertification, employment, and water supply.

Integral to the Movement's success is the recognition of the need to involve the community, including youth. School-based tree planting projects have been a major contributor to the Movement's success in reforestation. Maathai describes a number of strategies employed by the Movement to increase community involvement and motivation, through group formation and awareness raising. Recommendations are provided to assist interested groups in establishing their own green belt project.

COMMENTS:

Includes sample forms used by Green Belt Movement members to assist in communication between members and the Movement headquarters and to assess group activities. The experiences described are specific to Kenya, but the author briefly describes efforts to expand the programme elsewhere in Africa.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Groundwork: African Women as Environmental Managers

AUTHOR(S): Khasiani, Shanyisa A., editor
IMPRINT: Nairobi: ACTS Press, 1992. 131 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Environment, Forestry, Law & Legislation, Water & Sanitation

SUMMARY:

This collection of nine articles is intended to recognize and promote the central role women in Kenya play in environmental conservation. Women's traditional farming and sustainable land use practices are documented. These practices are based upon an extensive knowledge of the local environment and an understanding of human interaction with it. Colonial and modern exploitation of resources have upset this balance. Thus, the authors call upon policy makers and legislators to integrate women's environmental knowledge in land use management.

Among the topics included here are a description of women's traditional ecological knowledge, how exploitation has disrupted the environment and how these women have had to adapt to ensure food security. Assessments of current projects are also presented, dealing with soil & water conservation, domestic energy, etc. Recurring problems resulting from lack of grassroots consultation are described. The "Mwethya" self-help groups are presented as an effective model for sharing workloads among community members. The role of women storytellers is an important yet overlooked tool for social change and for passing along environmental knowledge.

COMMENTS:

Thorough analysis of a range of issues pertaining to rural women's interaction with the environment . Emphasizes the importance of integrating this knowledge in formal policy making.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Homefront: a media campaign on gender issues

PRODUCER/CREATOR: Caribbean News Agency (CANA), with CARICOM, UNIFEM (Caribbean), UNICEF, Women and Development Unit, University of the West Indies (WAND).
LENGTH: 120 five-minute units.
DATE: July, 1994-September, 1995
DISTRIBUTOR: Caribbean News Agency, Ltd. (CANA), Beckles Road, St. Michael, Barbados, West Indies
MATERIAL TYPE: Audio Tapes
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development

SUMMARY:

The product of a Caribbean Communications Strategy initiated during preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China, 1995), Homefront represents a process of co-operation among several institutions (governmental, funding, media and educational) guided by a women's political agenda.

The campaign demonstrates that journalists operating in the mainstream can make spaces for alternative programming modules with creative results. In terms of content, the interviews with women and men living and working within rural and urban communities weave professional assessment, facts and figures into a fabric of local knowledge. Most striking is the recognition of these usually ignored sources of expertise on development.

The series contains broad contextual introductory units on the development model as "a new annex in an old house"; units on the status of Caribbean development; and units which specify gender questions about the direction of Caribbean society. The two sided objective of public education and public input gives "voice" to gender and development where it is most lived, in everyday social relations.

COMMENTS:

These five-minute units designed as modules in local programming or as fillers, were used extensively by radio stations in the Eastern Caribbean. They present a range of views on the gender power issues in the English speaking Caribbean.

Reviewed By: Nan Peacocke, WAND


In the shadows of the sun: Caribbean development alternatives and US policy

AUTHOR(S): Deer, Carmen Diana, et al.
IMPRINT: USA: Westview Press; Policy Alternatives for the Caribbean and Central America (PACCA), 1990. 246 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Economics

SUMMARY:

Some of the region's leading critics of US supported economic policies in the Caribbean and Central America propose an alternative to the existing development model. The book provides selected statistics on subject areas such as GDP, gross domestic investment, sex aggregated monthly income of household heads and migration. Nine "features" incorporated into the text highlight the book's thesis: that shaped by Europe's past colonial interests and maintained by current US policy, the region functions as an adjunct of external economic interests while alternative being formulated at the level of civil society provide a wealth of possibilities.

A collaborative effort between North American and Caribbean authors, the analysis is generated by feminists, academics, policy makers, activists in the non governmental sector and through the efforts of governments seeking to prioritise the development goals of their people over the interests of US capital.

COMMENTS:

Specific chapters applying gender as an analytical tool are particularly useful for linking global economic policies to their consequences at the level of poor households.

Reviewed By: Nan Peacocke, WAND


Insights from women dairy farmers in India: what do they gain from participation.

AUTHOR(S): Smith-Sreen, Poonam and Smith-Sreen, John
JOURNAL: Social Action, Vol 41 No 4, 1991, 416-427.
MATERIAL TYPE: Journal Article
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture

SUMMARY:

Dairying has been identified as an important development programme for alleviating rural poverty. The authors present the results of interviews conducted with women dairy farmers in Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat, India.

To the women, income is only one of many factors identified in their assessment of the value of owning dairy cattle. Dung provides much needed fertilizer for farmland. Income derived from dairying is regular as opposed to seasonal from other agricultural sources. The nutritional status of the family is improved from the constant supply of milk. The sale of calves is an important economic asset. Women also describe how their standing in the village improves. They are seen as successful and are sought for advice. They appreciate the ability to assist others and often encourage other women to apply for loans to acquire animals. Self reliance and self confidence increase as they end their dependence on moneylenders. Problems they face are also described. The need for training in animal health care, nutrition, and bookkeeping are identified.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


International seminar: gender-sensitive planning in rural development - Usa River, Tanzania - Final Report

AUTHOR(S): Engelhardt, Eva
IMPRINT: Feldafing, Germany: Deutsche Stiftung fur Internationale Entwicklung (DSE), Zentralstelle fur Ernahrung und Landwirtschaft (ZEL), 1996, 173 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Conference Proceedings
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Economics, Environment, Human Rights. PRA/RRA

SUMMARY:

This document contains the proceedings of the international seminar on gender-sensitive planning in rural development which took place in Usa River, Tanzania, in March 1996. Notable contents include aims and tools of gender analysis, gender-sensitive goal-oriented planning, and some aspects of a political framework for gender sensitive planning in a rural setting. The seminar was based on participatory methods.

COMMENTS:

In this book, experiences of gender-sensitive planning are drawn from various parts of Africa, as reflected by the participants. Participants were drawn from South Africa, Tanzania, Lesotho, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Cameroon and Kenya. Field visits were conducted in Tanzania. It prescribes a course of action in gender planning in rural areas.

Reviewed By: Rose Maro, Co-operative College Women's Documentation Centre, Moshi


Invisible hands: women in home-based production

AUTHOR(S): Singh, Andrea Menefee and Kelles-Viitanen, Anita, editors
IMPRINT: New Delhi: Sage, 1987. 273 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study.
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Co-operatives, Law & Legislation, Microenterprise.

SUMMARY:

The purpose of this collection is to raise awareness of the vast number of women in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka whose lives depend upon home-based employment. Most of these women are in rural areas. Activities described here include dairy, handicrafts, livestock raising, coir rope and beedi production. Home-based workers are either self-employed or work piece rate for companies.

While attempts are now being made to understand women's unpaid domestic work, there continues to be a dearth of information and understanding regarding women's home-based paid work. Such work often does not appear in national labour statistics. This income is critical for the survival of many poor families, and enables women to remain in rural communities. Due to this invisibility, it is a prime site for exploitation by businesses. Because of the low capital costs, no legislation, a dispersed workforce that inhibits unionization, no minimum wage or security benefits, this sector is a cheap source of labour.

Some labour unions have called for a ban of home-based work, however the authors here see this as an unrealistic solution as it would simply drive the work underground. They call for increased labour protection through legislation, unionization, and promotion of self-employment instead of piece-work. They encourage the development of agricultural development programs and co-operatives that integrate a gender analysis and include direct consultation with the women, and an increase in the number of women extension officers.

COMMENTS:

Provides an extensive introduction to this hidden labour sector, and suggests areas for further research to promote employment opportunities for rural women and women confined to the home.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Irrigation in the Philippines: impact on women and their households: the Aslong Project case

AUTHOR(S): Illo, Jeanne Frances I.
IMPRINT: Bangkok: The Population Council, 1988. 76 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, PRA/RRA, Water & Sanitation

SUMMARY:

The second in the series Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development: Cases for Planners, Asia, which studies the impact of large scale development projects on women, this report examines the Aslong Irrigation Project (AIP). The goals of the AIP were to increase food production, employment, and the standard of living for the people in the region. Planners recognized the need to involve farmers throughout the development process.

Initially, "heads of household", of whom 90% were male, were invited to participate. When the designation changed to "household", women's participation increased substantially. This designation recognized women as equal participants in the farming enterprises, and has been implemented in subsequent projects. Concerns raised by women were taken into account, such as women's household water needs. Also, construction was scheduled to fit around the agricultural season.

However, as the project progressed, women faced the double burden of domestic duties with increased agricultural labour. This prevented many women from participating in the evaluation process due to time constraints.

COMMENTS:

Includes description of the research methodology, examples, statistical data, case studies.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Is there need for policy on biomass management?

AUTHOR(S): Sebunya, Kaddu Kiwe
JOURNAL: Arise, Issue No 8, Oct-Dec, 1992, 18-19, 22-23
MATERIAL TYPE: Journal Article
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Environment, Forestry, Health

SUMMARY:

Sebunya argues that the impending woodfuel crisis in Africa will seriously impede current efforts in sustainable rural development. Women are primarily affected by this shortage, yet they are often voiceless in the debate.

There is an urgent need to recognize the necessity of biomass cover to sustain environmental and human health, such as water supply and dietary needs. Citing a case study from Uganda, the author calls for a greater understanding of wood collection activities. External factors are placing increased pressure on wood supplies, including: the cost of electricity and other fuels, and the high cost of cement blocks that increase demand for baked clay bricks. Traditional forest management practices are being undermined by roving "firewood hunters."

Reforestation is only one factor in a solution to this problem. Scientific research must include local-level knowledge so that the whole environmental context is understood, and that both forest and agricultural concerns are considered.

COMMENTS:

Concise critique of the woodfuel crisis. However, gender concerns are not dealt with beyond a recognition of the situation for women stated above.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Learning from each other: gender-focused visits by staff from agencies in the GOOD network

AUTHOR(S): The GOOD Core Group
IMPRINT: London: GOOD (Gender Orientation on Development), 1996. 29 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Advisory report
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Organizational Development

SUMMARY:

A summary of findings from visits made to 24 countries between 1987 and 1994. The introduction gives suggestions on carrying out a gender-focused visit. The visits documented were all made by staff of European ecumenical agencies.

Reviewed By: Fiona Thomas, GOOD Coordinator


Let us solve our problems ourselves

IMPRINT: Kathmandu: Save the Children, US - Nepal Field Office, 1993. 9 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Flip Chart
LANGUAGE: Nepali
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Savings & Credit, Early Childhood

SUMMARY:

Dilmaya lives with her husband and children in rural Nepal. She wants to utilize her weaving skills to generate extra income for her family. Over time, Dilmaya opens a day care centre with 5 other like-minded women and starts producing baskets from bamboo products. Other women join Dilmaya. They are generating extra income and are able to send their children to the day care centre and to school afterwards.

COMMENTS:

This was adapted from a real life situation from Tandrang, Gorkha. This flip chart is being used in training, i.e. group formation, early childhood education and skill training.

Reviewed By: Keshab Khanal, Save the Children US - Nepal Field Office


Miss Amy and Miss May

PRODUCER/CREATOR: Sistren Women's Theatre Group
DISTRIBUTOR: Kingston, Jamaica: Sistren; Toronto: Full Frame Film and Video Distribution, 1990.
MATERIAL TYPE: Video, 40 min., colour
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: History/Theory

SUMMARY:

An account of the lives and work of two women during the politically charged period of Jamaica in the 1930s, a time of labour organisation, nationalism and the struggle for women's rights. Amy Bailey, daughter of an eminent black family was a leader in the Jamaican women's movement. May Farquharson, daughter of a wealthy planter advocated taxing the rich to help the poor, reproductive rights for women and reforms to benefit the elderly. Afolashade and Honor Ford-Smith portray these history shapers with humour and complexity.

COMMENTS:

A media resource on the neglected contribution of Jamaican feminists to the making of the modern West Indies.

Reviewed By: Nan Peacocke, WAND


Monocultures of the mind: perspectives on biodiversity and biotechnology

AUTHOR(S): Shiva, Vandana
IMPRINT: Penang, Malaysia: Third World Network; London: Zed, 1993. 184 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Economics, Environment

SUMMARY:

Shiva presents a thorough critique of monoculture practices in agriculture and forestry. Effects of monoculture include erosion, pollution, and loss of indigenous plant species upon which local populations depend for nutrition.

Locally based programmes to conserve biodiversity are examined. The Biodiversity Convention adopted at the Rio Summit in 1992 is examined from a Third World perspective, exposing ways in which this convention will favour US interests at the expense of those who are supposed to be assisted. High tech industries from the North are profiting from many current policies, such as the gene banks who now force Third World farmers to pay for seeds that once were theirs traditionally. Furthermore, monoculture strategies are displacing ecologically sound traditional practices and species, thereby impoverishing and disrupting the populations affected.

COMMENTS:

Although this book does not focus primarily on issues specific to women, Shiva works from a critical feminist perspective throughout her analysis.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


The moon also has her own light: the struggle to build a women's consciousness among Nicaraguan fieldworkers

AUTHOR(S): Women's Program of the International Council for Adult Education and the Nicaraguan Association of Rural Workers; edited by Heather Chetwynd, Marie Lorenzo and Lynda Yanz
IMPRINT: Toronto: Women's Program of ICAE, 1989. 63 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Education, Labour, Media

SUMMARY:

Women's involvement in the Nicaraguan farm labourer union, ATC, is examined to highlight the lessons learned and insights gained in the promotion of women's organizations.

With the growing role of women in agricultural labour during the Sandinista Revolution, there was a move to increase their participation in the union to ensure women's concerns were addressed. A training programme was developed that was similar to the literacy campaign active at the same time. The need for an equitable system that would break down the power imbalance between men and women was identified. This book describes the use of workshops and a women's publication to promote popular education and the sharing of knowledge. It also follows the process of organizing women to articulate their concerns and to change men's consciousness.

COMMENTS:

Includes examples of photographs used in training.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Mujer, amor y violencia: nuevas interpretaciones de antiguas realidades

AUTHOR(S): Grupo Mujer y Sociedad
IMPRINT: Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Tercero Mundo Editores, 1991.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: Spanish
SUBJECTS: Group Building

COMMENTS:

An interesting book which mixes personal narrative and a largely sociological account of the women's movement, covering everything from biological debates to feminist organizations.

Reviewed By: Nanci Lee, International Rural Development Planning, University of Guelph


Mujer campesina y organizacion rural en Colombia

AUTHOR(S): Medrano, Diana and Villar, Rodrigo
IMPRINT: Bogota: CEREC,1988.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: Spanish
SUBJECTS: Community Development

SUMMARY:

Uses three case studies in Colombia to examine women (campesinas) and their role in social change. Issues span intra-household bargaining and women's organizations, to traditional feminine roles.

Reviewed By: Nanci Lee, International Rural Development Planning, University of Guelph


Mujer y empleo en el sector rural

AUTHOR(S): Ayala, V.
IMPRINT: Bogota: UNICEF, Inter-American Development Bank, 1990.
MATERIAL TYPE: Conference Proceedings
LANGUAGE: Spanish
SUBJECTS: Economics

SUMMARY:

Summary of a workshop on the participation of female labour in the rural sector.

COMMENTS:

Provides a broad-brushed understanding of women's role in the rural informal sector.

Reviewed By: Nanci Lee, International Rural Development Planning, University of Guelph.


La mujer y la familia en la economia Colombiana

AUTHOR(S): Marulanda, N.
IMPRINT: Bogota: UNICEF, Inter-American Development Bank, 1982.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: Spanish
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Economics, Microenterprise

SUMMARY:

Takes the household economy model approach to understanding the Colombian economy. Also discusses women's unrecognized role in agriculture, local food security and income generation.

Reviewed By: Nanci Lee, International Rural Development Planning, University of Guelph.


My grievances

PRODUCER/CREATOR: Save the Children, US - Nepal Field Office
DISTRIBUTOR: Kathmandu: Save the Children, US - Nepal Field Office
MATERIAL TYPE: Poster, 22" x 14", Training Material
LANGUAGE: Nepali
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Economics, Environment, Food Production

SUMMARY:

Colour poster showing the many labours of women in the context of rural Nepal.

COMMENTS:

Used for training, especially in gender training and with women's groups to raise awareness of the situation of women.

Reviewed By: Keshab Khanal, Save the Children, US - Nepal Field Office


Natural rebels: a social history of enslaved black women in Barbados

AUTHOR(S): Beckles, Hilary
IMPRINT: London: Zed, 1989. 187 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: History/Theory

SUMMARY:

A carefully researched study of enslaved women in Barbados as they suffered, laboured, and wherever possible, turned to their advantage colonial patterns of power and authority mediating slave society in the century between 1790 and 1890. The work draws on contemporary documents, newspapers and personal correspondence to reveal a complex social history of race and gender relations in household, yard, estate and urban centre.

The author contends that black women in a variety of contexts, whether through persistant attempts to advance community cohesion and their collective interests, or when pursuing personal, individualist goals, were motivated by an anti-slavery consciousness, as black and female, which focused their social behaviour.

COMMENTS:

A forceful contribution to restoring women's importance to Caribbean historiography.

Reviewed By: Nan Peacocke, WAND


NAVAMAGA: training activities for group building, health and income generation

AUTHOR(S): Svendsen, Dian Seslar and Wijetilleke, Sujatha
IMPRINT: Colombo: Women's Bureau of Sri Lanka; Washington: Overseas Education Fund, 1983. 156 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Training Material
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Education, Group Building, Health, Microenterprise, Monitoring & Evaluation

SUMMARY:

Created by Sri Lankan rural development workers, this handbook is designed to assist in the design and implementation of training at the grassroots level. This handbook encompasses a wide range of topics that are intended to incorporate technical information with participatory training techniques. The goal is to involve women in problem solving and decision making that will help them develop the skills to plan and implement their own projects.

Topics in this handbook include: group building, communication, co-operative problem solving, women's leadership, training design, planning methods, bookkeeping, resource identification, monitoring and evaluation. Teaching methods include the use of role plays and case studies. Case studies which implement these models include: agricultural projects in livestock and crops; health programs such as a village health needs survey, preventative health care and first aid.

COMMENTS:

Although developed in Sri Lanka, the authors promote the use of this manual in any rural development setting. Exercises, step-by-step training activities, and basic training materials (drawings, charts, etc) are included.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


On our feet: taking steps to challenge women's oppression: a handbook on gender and popular education workshops

AUTHOR(S): Mackenzie, Liz
IMPRINT: Bellville, South Africa: University of the Western Cape, Centre for Adult and Continuing Education (CACE), 1993. 171 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Manual, Training Material
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Education, Group Building

SUMMARY:

Grounded in a feminist approach to gender relations, this manual based on training workshops in South Africa uses popular education techniques to empower women to examine the roots of their oppression and develop collective strategies for change. Chapters on designing and facilitating participatory workshops are included, as well as instructions for specific workshop activities. A glossary of gender terms used in the manual is provided.

COMMENTS:

Instructions and background information for familiar workshop activities such as "The Gender Tree" can be found in this manual. Practical techniques for building trust and sharing power within a group could be used in any training program or group setting. The workshop focuses primarily on analysis of personal and societal issues related to gender inequality and does not address the application of gender concepts in development projects.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Our lives, our stories

AUTHOR(S): White Ink
IMPRINT: Bangkok: Research Action Project on Traffic in Women, 1995. 105 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: Thai and English
SUBJECTS: Human Rights

SUMMARY:

Produced by the women themselves, this is a collection of stories describing the experiences of women who have been victims of sexual exploitation and violence arising from the international traffic in women. The stories originate from different parts of Thailand and the women speak frankly of the difficulties they faced in returning home and attempting to re-integrate into community life.

COMMENTS:

Profoundly moving, the text is easy to read and is accompanied by line drawings. As conditions in rural Thailand continue to deteriorate and the worldwide traffic in women increases, this is an important book for community development workers to read because it reveals the unseen economic and socio-cultural context for development work in many of the poorest communities. More information about the process of consciousness raising that led to the publication of this book would have been interesting.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Participatory Research With Women Farmers

PRODUCER/CREATOR: Conceived: Michel P. Pimbert, Director: P.V. Satheesh. Hyderabad, India: Development Perspectives.
LENGTH: 22 min.
DISTRIBUTOR: Television Trust for the Environment (TVE), World Wildlife Fund Television Centre, Zeist, The Netherlands.
MATERIAL TYPE: Video, VHS format (NTSC)
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Environment, PRA/RRA

SUMMARY:

For thousands of years, farmers have been selecting and preserving seed varieties for their local environments. Recent threats to this important biodiversity have led the Indian gene bank ICRISAT to work with local farmers to produce indigenous varieties.

This film follows the research process involving ICRISAT scientists and women farmers in Andhra Pradesh to test several varieties of pigeon peas--the primary source of protein in the region. Recognizing that research stations cannot reproduce local growing conditions, new varieties are tested by farmers alongside traditional varieties. The participatory approach used in these trials ensures that researchers benefit from local knowledge. When the crops are harvested, group interviews with farmers are conducted in which positive and negative aspects of each variety are discussed--pest resistance, plant growth, pod production, pea flavour. All participants recognize the need to plant a number of different species, according to their relative resistance and production characteristics. The women farmers insist on the necessity of maintaining a broad genetic diversity, recognizing the need for long-term sustainability, rather than short-term crop production.

COMMENTS:

Clearly shows an effective model of women farmers' participation in a sustainable agriculture program. Shows models and methods of participatory rural appraisal.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Participatory training for women

IMPRINT: New Delhi: Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA), 1989. 151 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Education, Group Building, Health, Monitoring & Evaluation.

SUMMARY:

To ensure greater participation of women in the development process, a variety of training needs have been identified. This handbook presents several case studies describing training models that focus on empowering women, building self-esteem and collective action.

Both urban and rural women's organisations in India are represented. The rural development programs include: community health worker training from SEWA; extension worker training with tribal and small farmers with RISE in Andhra Pradesh; MYRADA; ASTHA; and JAGORI.

Each case study includes background information on the organisation, strategies developed, training process and methodology, evaluation, and examples of action plans and exercises.

Common strategies and problems with all participating organisations are discussed, followed by recommendations to enhance projects working at the grassroots level.

COMMENTS:

The case studies do not go into great detail, but do provide a good range of strategies for working in different situations.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Planning at the end of the river: land and water use management in Chekereni Village, Moshi District, Tanzania

AUTHOR(S): Lezise, Fred Simon
IMPRINT: Copenhagen: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 1996. 257 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Environment, Water and Sanitation

SUMMARY:

This is a research report on land and water use management in Tanzania, with specific reference to the Chekereni area in Moshi District, Kilimanjaro Region. Findings are on property rights, the use of land and natural resources, as well as national (Tanzanian) policies and plans for better use of land and water in relation to actual developments on rural land.

COMMENTS:

The document is of significant importance for those who want to know why aims and objectives of rural development in Tanzania are not realized. Also, it answers questions on what really happens when policies and plans for rural development are implemented.

Reviewed By: Rose Maro, Co-operative College Women's Documentation Centre, Moshi.


Priority issues for women, health and development in Thailand: a resource book for strategic planning and policy-making

AUTHOR(S): Meesook, A., Attig, G.A., and Phijaisanit, P.
IMPRINT: Bangkok: National Committee on Women, Health and the Environment, 1995. 75 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Health

SUMMARY:

A series of papers prepared for the World Health Organization, this report describes the health of women in Thailand including agricultural labourers, industrial labourers, child labourers, professional women and commercial sex workers. Each section contains statistics and analysis about the social, cultural, economic, and political factors which affect women's health and personal and community well-being. A bibliography is included for each paper.

COMMENTS:

Health is a key indicator of the quality of life and an indicator which is often overlooked in the identification, design and implementation of development projects. By drawing attention to the condition of specific groups of Thai women, gender and development issues such as access to income, information, training and technology or women's subordinate status in Thai society are clearly illustrated. The chapters on women agricultural labourers and women industrial workers are a rich source of examples about gender inequalities. Social and cultural factors which affect women's position in Thai society are outlined in the paper about the health issues of professional women. The section on commercial sex workers would have benefitted from a more critical analysis of the social, economic and environmental factors pushing women into the industry.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Proceedings of the First Asian Indigenous Women's Conference -- Sharing commonalities and diversities: forging unity towards indigenous women's empowerment.

AUTHOR(S): Santos, Joy Angelica Pecua, editor
IMPRINT: Manila: Cordillera Women's Education and Resource Center and INNABUYOG, 1993. 245 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Conference Proceedings, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Economics, Environment, Forestry, Health, Human Rights, Law & Legislation

SUMMARY:

Included in these conference proceedings are many short workshop reports encompassing a wide range of concerns of indigenous women throughout Southeast Asia. The issue of development projects threatening their agricultural resources is a recurring topic in these reports. Successful examples of women organizing are presented. Topics covered include: environmental degradation from mining, logging, dams, and other such projects; traditional indigenous practices of sustainable land management; human rights violations and violence at both the domestic and state level; health policies; impact of global economics; land rights; and political representation.

COMMENTS:

This report covers a wide range of issues of vital importance to women in this region; however, because of this wide scope not all the items focus on rural issues in depth. Many case studies are cited and recommendations for action are presented throughout.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Redesigning a settlement agency in Sri Lanka to promote participation of women in its management

AUTHOR(S):Raby, Namika
BOOK TITLE: Development, displacement and resettlement: focus on Asian Experiences (edited by Hari Mohan Mathur with the collaboration of Michael M. Cernea)
IMPRINT: New Delhi: Vikas, 1995. p. 190-205.
MATERIAL TYPE: Chapter in Book.
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECT: Community Development

SUMMARY:

This article considers ways in which assessment and evaluation procedures of an organization can be developed to ensure that women's full participation is integrated. This requires an identification of constraints that hinder women's participation in this process at both the upper management and grassroots operational levels, followed by an analysis of how these constraints can be removed.

As a case study, the Mahaweli Development Programme is examined. This is a resettlement scheme designed to place landless people in an irrigated agricultural zone. Potential advantages of this scheme are studied to find ways in which women's participation can be integrated in areas of farm labour, home gardens and health care. Unitary management models are described and promoted to recruit women.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Reform of personal status laws in North Africa: a problem of Islamic or Mediterranean status laws?

AUTHOR(S): Mayer, Ann Elizabeth
IMPRINT: Grabels, France: Women Living Under Muslim Laws, 1996. 19 p. Occasional Paper no.8.
MATERIAL TYPE: Report
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Human Rights, Labour, Law & Legislation

SUMMARY:

This paper compares changes in the legal definitions of marriage and the relationship of spouses in French Law, the secular laws of Turkey, and the laws of three North African states to reveal similar patterns in legal evolution of family laws in Muslim countries on both northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean. The author carefully counters what she considers to be a tendency in the West to exaggerate the gap between the evolution of Western family laws and the evolving process of family laws in Muslim countries, arguing that western laws regulating the status of women in the family only recently (since the 1960s) incorporated the modern norm of equality. Tracing the sponsorship of 19th century patriarchy to the Code Napoleon of 1804 (Napoleon reportedly proclaimed, "Women ought to obey us. Nature has made women our slaves."), Mayer points out that not until 1965 did a French wife get the right to work without her husband's permission, and French husbands did not forfeit rights that came with their status as head of the family (chef de famille) until 1970. "These French reforms came, be it noted, after the era of French colonialism in North Africa had already ended" (p.8).

In a section titled "Lessons from the Turkish experience" (p.16) the author suggests that reform is underway, motivated by pressure from women's associations, successful challenges to unconstitutional civil laws in the context of economic transformation and changed attitudes. In a particular case, a Turkish court ruled that Turkey, by its own proclamation as a "law state" was bound by international human rights standards. As a member of the United Nations and as a party to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the UN Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) has been ratified by Morocco and Tunisia), the court noted that Turkey had established the equality of men and women.

COMMENTS:

Thoughtfully questions Western assumptions about the East.

Reviewed By: Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), in "Keeping Informed" no. 23, December 1996.


The road to empowerment

AUTHOR(S): Kabira, Wanjiku Mukabi, and Muthoni, Wanjira, editors.
IMPRINT: Nairobi: African Women's Development and Communication Network (FEMNET)
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECT: Community Development, Education, Law and Legislation

SUMMARY:

This book is an attempt to consolidate the efforts of the FEMNET Gender Sensitization Team which was established in 1988. It addresses some of the issues that can influence the creation of a just, democratic and humane culture. It also looks at different approaches for moving towards empowerment for women.

COMMENTS:

The book provides a framework within which the designer, planner or implementer of any project or program can systematically look at women's roles as a basis for development. It is useful in helping both women and men recognize women's roles and the traditional laws which have oppressed them.

Reviewed By: Isri Yusuf Adhan, KIPOC-NGO of Pastoral People, Loliondo, Tanzania


The role of women in credit unions in Africa

IMPRINT: Nairobi: African Confederation of Co-op, Savings & Credit Associations (ACCOSCA), 1990. 85 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Co-operatives, Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:

Women's participation in co-operatives and credit unions are evaluated in eight countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Rwanda, and Togo. Many of the co-operatives surveyed are involved in agriculture or food processing. ACCOSCA's Women Development Service carried out this survey in 1989 to determine the causes of low participation rates by women. Recurring problems that are identified include cultural biases that discriminate against women, which denies them access to property, education and business training, adequate waged employment, and the right to participate in the public sphere. Reasons for success or failure of women's projects are listed, followed by recommendations to address these issues.

COMMENTS:

While this survey does not provide a thorough critical analysis of the root causes of the discrimination identified by the survey, a range of practical strategies for encouraging increased participation by women are promoted. Extensive statistical information is provided for each country on levels and types of women's participation in co-op structures.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Rural women and modernisation in agriculture

AUTHOR(S): Majumdar, Mita
JOURNAL: Social Action, Vol 41 No 4, 1991, 367-381.
MATERIAL TYPE: Journal Article
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECT: Agriculture

SUMMARY:

Majumdar critiques the belief that shunning indigenous techniques and adopting modern technology increases productivity and profitability. New technology is often inappropriate for the conditions in which it is implemented. Further, the high cost of technology makes it inaccessible to the poor, which leads them to become further marginalized.

The impact of technology is examined with specific reference to rural and tribal women in India. Women are often denied access to machinery that is introduced to agricultural enterprises. Thus, they often lose their traditional jobs altogether, or they are relegated to more strenuous manual labour. Technology tends to make men's work easier, but there is little technological research conducted to ease women's labour. Various activities of rural women are described, including an analysis of the impact technology has had on them.

COMMENTS:

Recommendations are made at the policy and research levels.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Rural women as labour force: realities of law in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S): Bangladesh Jatiyo Mahila Ainjibi Samity
IMPRINT: Dhaka: Legal Literacy Research and Legal Aid Project, Bangladesh Jatiyo Mahila Ainjibi Samity (Bangladesh National Women Lawyer's Association), 1985. 44 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Human Rights, Labour, Law & Legislation

SUMMARY:

This study evaluates the effectiveness of current labour legislation in protecting the rights of women agricultural labourers in Bangladesh. The analysis includes a description of a number of food processing activities, women's economic contribution, and negative gender-based attitudes that contribute to discrimination against women.

Although some legislation exists to address problems faced by women, such legislation is often inadequately implemented. Recommendations are made to improve the effectiveness of current laws.

COMMENTS:

Concise evaluation of women's roles in food processing in Bangladesh. Analysis and recommendations are specific to the cultural and legal conditions in Bangladesh. Includes statistical information.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Selected women's programmes in Sierra Leone: A Handbook Prepared By the Women's Commission in Adult Education

IMPRINT: Freetown: Sierra Leone Adult Education Association (SLADEA), (1988?). 227 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Fisheries, Health, Microenterprise, Monitoring & Evaluation, Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:

A survey was conducted in 1988 to evaluate programs working with women in Sierra Leone. A sample of programs from most regions of the country are presented, most of which are active in rural areas. In addition to a description of activities, participants were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of projects and examine how they identify and overcome problems.

Income generating projects are the most widespread. However, there is still pronounced sex-role stereotyping in these activities and there is room for growth in the use of appropriate technology. Agriculture projects are prevalent, but in many cases the shift from subsistence to cash crops has not improved the nutritional status of women and children. There appears to be a shortage of locally based health programs. Most health projects are still administered by international agencies such as UNICEF. In general, organizational problems identified include equipment shortages and the need for management skills.

Several recommendations are presented. Emphasis is placed on the need for self-reliance and on the utilization of local resources that could help enhance the sustainability of policies directed toward assisting women's programs. In addition, the survey process itself is evaluated and suggestions for improvement for future research projects are made. Statistical summaries, a description of the questionnaire and responses, and a directory of participating organizations are included.

COMMENTS:

The information is drawn from Sierra Leone only, but some of the information provided is useful for the development of similar monitoring and evaluation surveys.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Social security for women in the informal sector in Thailand

AUTHOR(S): Sirisambhand, N.
IMPRINT: Bangkok: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 1996. 78 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:

This volume summarizes social security issues of women working in the informal sector. The author presents and analyses 11 case studies of Thai NGOs/GOs whose savings and credit projects enable self-employed women and families to deal with problems such as sickness, maternity, accidents, unemployment, death and family benefits. The book concludes with recommendations for NGOs/GOs. A short bibliography is provided.

COMMENTS:

The author provides useful cultural insights about how successful social security schemes draw upon traditional forms of mutual self-help. The comparison and contrast of the four models--credit union, NGO, people's organisation, GO--reveals strengths and weaknesses that will be of interest to planners and organizers of savings and credit groups. The book focuses largely on the needs and problems of women and their families; however, it would have been interesting to have had more analysis of the hidden gender context of the informal sector. Why do women appear to be the primary users of these kinds of savings and credit programs? What is the role of men in providing social security for the family?

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


A study of the incidence of domestic violence in Trinidad and Tobago from 1991 to 1993

AUTHOR(S): Creque, Merri
IMPRINT: Port of Spain, Trinidad: The Shelter for Battered Women; Trinidad and Tobago Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 1993. 28 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Health, Human Rights

SUMMARY:

This research study attempted to compile reported incidence of four types of domestic violence in Trinidad and Tobago from 1991 to 1993 inclusive. The four investigated areas of abuse were wife abuse, child abuse, elderly abuse and abuse to persons with handicaps. The main objective of the study was to establish baseline statistics on domestic violence on a national level for Trinidad and Tobago.

Two previous studies have focused on child abuse in the twin islands. There have been no local studies on the other types of abuse and no research on a national scale on any area of domestic violence.

COMMENTS:

A number of other groups have become interested in the impact of domestic violence in our society and have sourced funding to do research on the subject. We hope they will be able to use this study as a base upon which other studies will be done in future in order to map an ongoing factual record over the years of what cannot help but be a very emotional issue.

Reviewed By: Diana Mahabir Wyatt, Trinidad and Tobago Coalition Against Domestic Violence.


Supporting women farmers in the green zones of Mozambique

AUTHOR(S): Ayisi, Ruth Ansah
JOURNAL: Seeds, No 17, 1995, 20 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Journal Issue, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Co-operatives

SUMMARY:

This case study examines projects assisting women to provide food and earn an income in the "green zones" of Mozambique--agricultural land along the outskirts of urban areas--through the provision of services and training in agriculture, health, and child care/creches.

The General Union of Co-operatives, funded by the People's Development Bank, has formed 182 co-ops, with a membership that is 95% female. Maputo is an example of a successful green zone strategy. How the co-op functions and the role of the GUC are described. The emphasis is on people's development.

Not all green zone projects have been successful, thus the author summarizes the strategies that have made Maputo a success story, and the lessons learned when a model is transferred to a different region and fails.

COMMENTS:

This document includes several brief stories of women who are participating in green zone projects.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Sustainable development and economic policy in Kenya

AUTHOR(S): Juma, Calestous
BOOK TITLE: Gaining Ground: institutional innovations in land-use management in Kenya (edited by Amos Kiriro and Calestous Juma)
IMPRINT: Nairobi: ACTS Press, 1991. p. 51-86.
MATERIAL TYPE: Chapter in Book.
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Environment

SUMMARY:

There is increasing recognition of the need for the integration of sustainability in development policies and programmes. However, due to structural adjustment programmes and government cutbacks, the funding is often lacking to implement new programmes. Juma calls for a reevaluation of existing traditional knowledge. Women can play a central role in sustainable agricultural practices because of their extensive knowledge in this area. However, discriminatory practices have kept their work and knowledge marginalized.

There needs to be an integration of gender relations, land rights, plant tenure, and other agricultural practices to ensure food security and to avoid environmental destruction from pollution and other unsustainable activities.

COMMENTS:

Fairly detailed overview of key issues in Kenya, and recognition of the vital role women can play. Other articles in this book also deal with issues of sustainable rural development, but a gender analysis is lacking. Topics include watershed protection, wildlife management, social forestry and biodiversity.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Thai women: recommendations for development

AUTHOR(S): Yunibhand, J., editor
IMPRINT: Bangkok: Thai NGO Working Group for World Conference on Women and the Konrad-Adenauer Foundation, 1994. 109 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: Thai and English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Environment, Health, Human Rights, Indigenous Peoples

SUMMARY:

This is a bilingual summary of the workshop report about the status of Thai women and recommendations for development produced by the Thai NGO Working Group for the World Conference on Women, 1995. Each section includes a brief overview of the current situation, describes critical issues in Thai society and lists recommendations for change. Sections are included on: health, labour rights, women with disabilities, environment, agriculture, science and technology, economic empowerment, family, women's rights, the right of sexual preference, violence, political empowerment, education, culture and religion, information, and indigenous groups.

COMMENTS:

The report provides an overview of the spectrum of Thai women's issues and potential solutions from a grassroots perspective. Some of the topics, such as indigenous groups and women in the media, are seldom mentioned in other publications about women in Thailand.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Towards gender equity in development: strategies and tools

IMPRINT: Helsinki: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, Department for International Development Co-operation, 1995.
MATERIAL TYPE: Resource Kit, 4 booklets, approx. 35 p. each
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Forestry, Water & Sanitation

SUMMARY:

This kit consists of 4 booklets summarizing the experience of the Finnish Department for International Development Co-operation. Guidelines on Gender Analysis (1995) outlines the theory and implementation of gender analysis in development projects using the KARI Assessment of gender-based knowledge, activities, resources and incentives. Looking at Gender, Agriculture and Rural Development (1995) presents case studies illustrating gender issues in agricultural projects, explains the use of the Rapid Gender Analysis tool for gathering data and offers suggestions for integrating gender analysis throughout the project cycle. Looking at Gender, Water Supply and Sanitation (1994) discusses the need for using gender analysis in water and sanitation projects, outlines the conditions which enable gender sensitive implementation, compares and contrasts water and sanitation projects in urban and rural areas, and provides guidelines for gender implementation throughout the project cycle. Looking at Gender and Forestry (1993) is similar to the previous 2 volumes, but provides more information about the integration of gender at the policy, institution and field levels.

COMMENTS:

The most recent publication, Guidelines, provides one of the most concise overviews of gender theory and its importance in designing development projects that can be found in any publication. Looking at Gender, Agriculture contains excellent examples from countries around the world of gender analysis in the field which could be used for training workshops. The use of basic English and subtitles enables these books to be used by readers of English as a foreign language as well. I think that these are some of the best GAD references currently in print. The kit is available free of charge by writing to the Dept. of International Development Co-operation.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Tribal women and forest economy: deforestation, exploitation and status change

AUTHOR(S): Fernandes, Walter and Menon, Geeta
IMPRINT: New Delhi: Indian Social Institute, 1987. 178 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study.
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Economics, Environment, Forestry, Health.

SUMMARY:

The authors present the findings and analysis of an extensive survey of the role of women in the tribal forest economy in India. The research was conducted in the Orissa region of India. The rapid pace of industrial deforestation of the tribals' homelands has led to a significant deterioration in the quality of life among tribal peoples, particularly women. Increased workload, and diminished availability of traditional foods and medicinal herbs have led to serious health problems. The shift to a market economy is concentrating control of the land away from the women into the hands of companies and the government.

Current attempts to alleviate the situation are examined. Reforestation programmes are aimed at producing commercially exploitable plantations, not toward restoring indigenous species. The authors call for the implementation of social forestry programmes at the local level to encourage the development of sustainable forests. Voluntary organizations are critiqued for exhibiting a male bias that fails to recognize the interests of women. A number of organizations that are working toward effective change are described and recommendations are presented for further action. A radical change in thinking is needed to promote the economic viability of living forests. Grassroots social forestry programmes are considered key to the survival of the forests and the tribal people.

COMMENTS:

Includes detailed statistical information on food, health, education, economic activities, agriculture, etc., based upon the research data collected in the mid 1980s. A concise overview of the analysis and recommendations from this research has been produced by Supriya Dasgupta (separate entry included in this bibliography).

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Understanding the tribal dilemma: tribal women and forest dweller economy

AUTHOR(S): Dasgupta, Supriya
IMPRINT: New Delhi: Indian Social Institute, 1988. 40 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Economics, Environment, Forestry, Health.

SUMMARY:

Drawing from the research conducted by Fernandes & Menon (1987) on tribal groups in the Orissa region of India, Supriya presents an overview of the adverse effects of massive deforestation on the lives of tribal peoples. The tribal forest economy is primarily a women's economy, and it is women who are most directly affected by the corporate exploitation of their traditional lands. An overview of the local economy, the religious importance of the forests, and traditional sustainable forest management activities are described. The breakdown of this system has led to increased workload, health problems, and environmental destruction as monoculture forestry is replacing indigenous species. Organizations are now working to try to assist tribal women to regain a measure of control over the forests upon which they depend for survival. Recommendations are presented which could help community-based organizations become more effective.

COMMENTS:

A clear, concise overview of the conditions described. Comprehensive results of this research have been compiled by Walter Fernandes & Geeta Menon (see entry in this bibliography).

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Vidiyal (Dawn): a rural women's bank: an alternative saving and credit system

AUTHOR(S): Consortium of Women Sanghas
IMPRINT: Tiruchirapalli, India: Activists for Social Alternatives (ASA), 1994. 62 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book.
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Education, Microenterprise, PRA/RRA, Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:

This book provides background information on the creation, development and organization of this women's bank and ASA's involvement. Included are the methodology, rules and regulations, as well as the future goals of the bank. Similar projects developed by NGOs like MYRADA, PRADAN & ASSEFA are presented and compared with Vidiyal.

Emphasis is placed on empowerment of the poor towards creation and development of their own credit programs that promote sustainable development. Related programs to encourage self-reliance are also described, such as health, income-generation, and PRA training programmes.

COMMENTS:

Contains detailed information to help in the development of a small credit program for women. Includes descriptions of various activities and statistical information.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Vidiyal (Dawn): a rural women's bank: an alternative saving and credit system

AUTHOR(S): Consortium of Women Sanghas
IMPRINT: Tiruchirapalli, India: Activists for Social Alternatives (ASA), 1996. 67 p.
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Education, Microenterprise, PRA/RRA, Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:

This is a second edition of the 1994 book of the same title. Like the earlier edition, it provides background information on the development of the participatory rural credit system developed by ASA. It summarizes the progress made in the first two years of operation, including statistical data, and lists the rules and regulations.

ASA has recently been drawing from the experiences of the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh. Grameen strategies that have been adopted by Vidiyal are described, including the changes to the rules and regulations of Vidiyal that have arisen from the adoption of these strategies. Case studies of women in a number of credit schemes are also provided.

COMMENTS:

Updated statistics and different case studies from the earlier edition. (See separate entry in this Resource Directory).

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Vukani Mukai "Awakening"

PRODUCER/CREATOR: Doe Mayer, Ranche House College, Harare, Zimbabwe
DISTRIBUTOR: Columbia, Maryland, USA: DSR, Inc., n.d.
MATERIAL TYPE: Video, VHS, NTSC
LENGTH: 27 min.
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Co-operatives, Education, Microenterprise

SUMMARY:

This film presents an overview of the work of Ranche House College to develop co-operative management skills among women in Zimbabwe. In recognizing the need to organize so that more profits stay in the community, rural farming women are co-operating with market sellers to cut out the "middleman". Other projects such as a village bakery and basketry co-op are described.

At the training centre in Harare, women come from various rural regions to discuss the problems they face and develop strategies to overcome them. The use of role play is emphasized. Courses in bookkeeping, appropriate technology and project planning are highlighted.

COMMENTS:

Produced entirely in Zimbabwe, but key concepts are relevant to other regions.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Wasichana na wanawake wana haki!

AUTHOR(S): Kuleana: Kituo cha afya ya kujamiana
IMPRINT: Mwanza, Tanzania: Kuleana. 43 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Training Material
LANGUAGE: Kiswahili and English
SUBJECTS: Human Rights, Law & Legislation

SUMMARY:

This small booklet explains the situation of women and girls in East Africa. Women are concerned about their families, culture, rights and role in the community. They want to be recognized by society for their contribution toward the family, as well as activities at the national and international levels. They also want to claim their rights to basic needs, and access to adequate education, health care and political participation.

COMMENTS:

This booklet is useful because it is written in Kiswahili and clearly portrays women's daily lives. It could be used with women's, men's or youth groups to stimulate questions about human rights. The pictures could be used with groups having members who can't read. The book could be improved by showing men in more positive roles; helping women, sharing ideas, and working more co-operatively.

Reviewed By: Isri Yusuf Adhan, KIPOC-NGO of Pastoral People, Loliondo.


Weaving for alternatives

AUTHOR(S): Local Weaving Development Project of the Alternative Technology Association (ATA) and WAYANG
IMPRINT: Bangkok: WAYANG, 1995. 153 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Environment, Microenterprise

SUMMARY:

This book describes the experiences of women weavers and a grassroots community development organisation in Northeastern Thailand. The first part of the book and the accompanying video provide a detailed introduction to Thai sericulture, natural dyes and the use of indigenous technology and local knowledge. The second part of the book traces the origins of the project from the Alternative Technology Association to the establishment of the new alternative enterprise group, Pan Mai, and shows how community development projects evolve in real life, branching out in different directions as members gain knowledge and experience. Finally, the last section of the book looks at the impact of the project on gender relations and outlines how women have moved from passivity to empowerment within their families and communities. The book concludes with a short description of other "Alternative Development Initiatives", projects and networks in Southeast Asia.

COMMENTS:

Although the book would have benefited from judicious editing and a greater integration between chapters, at least two Thai resource people educated in the West have commented that it was this book which persuaded them that gender relations were indeed an issue for Thai development organisations. The book shows how the inequality of women is the result of a complex web of economic, social, cultural and environmental factors, and points out the barriers to establishing a self-supporting, co-operative enterprise. More detailed information about the impact of the project on the local environment and additional description of the educational process the organisation used with the weaving groups would have enhanced the case study. The use of direct quotations from the members of the weaving groups adds power to the text. The translated "Songs of Isarn" used in the video and included at the end of the book provide insight into the traditional culture of northeastern Thailand.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Women and Environment Education

BOOK TITLE: Draft National Environment Education Guidelines
IMPRINT: Kathmandu: National Conservation Strategy Implementation Programme, National Planning Commission, HMG Nepal, in collaboration with IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 1991. p. 24-31.
MATERIAL TYPE: Chapter in Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Education, Environment

SUMMARY:

Women are the primary participants in agriculture, food processing, water and fuel collection. They can play a vital role in environmental education at the community level and in the integration of sustainable practices. However, their effectiveness is impeded by their low social status and low access to education and information. There is a severe shortage of formal and non-formal education programmes for women.

This chapter summarizes the environmental and social conditions women must contend with in Nepal. Recommendations are presented for both government and NGO programmes to recognize the crucial role women play in the changes that are needed. Both short-term and long-term strategies are presented to integrate environmental education in existing and future community development projects.

COMMENTS:

Problems are identified and potential solutions are suggested, but detailed instructions on how these programmes may be implemented are not provided.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Women and human rights

AUTHOR(S): Subodhan, G.
IMPRINT: Thiruvananthapuram, India: National Women's Welfare Centre, 1993.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: Malayalam
SUBJECTS: Human Rights

SUMMARY:

This book gives an introduction about the mounting atrocities and discrimination against women in India and the legislative measures to prevent such atrocities. The book also gives a description of the role of peoples organization of women in launching the mass movement of women and the empowerment of women in finding solutions to the gender problems.

COMMENTS:

The said book gives some valuable insights regarding the human rights violation in India, particularly relating to the atrocities against women. It is useful to the women's organizations and activists in launching missions for protecting women. Apart from the legislative measures for protecting women, the non-formal measures for the same are also discussed in the book.

Reviewed By: M. Rajayyan, National Women's Welfare Centre


Women and Sustainable Development

JOURNAL: Women in Action, Vol 4/92 & 1/93 (double issue) DATE: 1993
MATERIAL TYPE: Journal Issue
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Economics, Environment, Group Building, Human Rights, Indigenous Peoples, Law & Legislation, Water & sanitation

SUMMARY:

Several articles relevant to women and sustainable development are included in this issue, as well as case studies from Africa and Asia. Of particular interest:

"Some thoughts on development and sustainable development", by Kamla Bhasin, summarizes economic attitudes and practices that cause environmental and human exploitation. She highlights elements of sustainable development that respond to these problems. There is a need for grassroots action, environmental responsibility, decentralization of control, i.e. local level development, and nonviolence. Networking among people's organizations is critical.

Also, articles by Devaki Jain, Maria Mies, Peggy Antrobus and Judith Bizot.

COMMENTS:

Good introduction to major concepts in sustainable development. Includes excerpts from several texts on this issue, and a bibliography of recommended readings.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Women in joint forestry management

AUTHOR(S): Das, P.K.
JOURNAL: Social Action, Vol 44 No 2, 1994, 56-68
MATERIAL TYPE: Journal Article
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Forestry

SUMMARY:

In 1988, the National Forest Policy in India was released, calling for increased community participation in forest management. However, as with many such policies, women's participation in the design, or a consideration of effects on women are often not included.

A description of women's participation in forestry in various regions of India is presented, followed by recommendations to ensure women's concerns are addressed. It is often assumed that increasing women's involvement in existing organisations is the preferred route; however in practice, separate women's organisations are usually more effective in ensuring women's voices are heard. These organisations enable women to gain experience in management that will place them in a stronger position when they later move on to larger organisations. There is a need for more field staff training. Suggestions for achieving this are presented, so that field staff may work more cooperatively with women.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Women in rural development (a case study)

AUTHOR(S): Kaur, Satnam
IMPRINT: Delhi: Mittal, 1987. 264 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Education, Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:

This book critiques current rural development programs that neglect to recognize and integrate women's economic and non-economic labour contributions. It examines the role of women in the home and in agriculture, and considers the nature and extent of women's farm decision making. Research was conducted in Haryana State, India. A detailed literature review of theory and case studies related to rural development and women in India and globally is presented. Methodology, analysis and interpretation are explained and detailed statistical summaries of women's work in livestock, crops, domestic and other labour are provided.

Recommendations drawn from this research include: the provision of appropriate technology for women's agricultural labour and for domestic use (e.g. stoves, drainage); women's access to training programs; promotion of dairying through increased access to loans and training, credit and banking programs; and policy changes to ensure increased women's participation in development programs.

COMMENTS:

The author notes that the findings are based on research conducted solely in Haryana State and are not all necessarily applicable elsewhere.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Women, nature and environment

AUTHOR(S): Ahmad, Asmat A. and Huq, Tahera Yasmin
BOOK TITLE: Environment and Development: a sub-regional perspective: proceeding of a workshop organised by ADAB (Bangladesh), INODEP-ASIA and ACFOD, Bangkok, 1991.
IMPRINT: Bangkok: ACFOD, 1991. p. 30-36.
MATERIAL TYPE: Chapter in Book.
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Environment

SUMMARY:

This paper describes rural women's work and traditional beliefs and taboos that regulate their activities. Many development programmes are beginning to tag on a women and environment component to their project policies, but the transfer from policy to action often falls short. Women may be accused of perpetuating "unsustainable activities" without outsiders understanding the underlying reasons why they continue certain practices. Women need to have an integrated role throughout the policy development process, not just within a subsection.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Women representatives at the union level as change agent of development

AUTHOR(S): Qadir, Sayeda Rowshan and Islam, Mahmuda
IMPRINT: Dhaka: Women for Women, 1987. 86 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Law & Legislation

SUMMARY:

This book describes the efforts to increase the number of women in Union Parishad, the lowest level of local government. This level is identified as having considerable potential for implementing changes to assist rural women. Women active at this level can act as mediators between local administrations and rural women, and become change agents to promote the interests of these women. A study was conducted in order to develop strategies to increase the effectiveness of these women as change agents. Women representatives, other administrators and community members were consulted. Statistical data are provided in addition to qualitative responses. Activities, problems faced and suggestions for solutions are included, in addition to descriptions of local attitudes and regional situations. Case studies and recommendations are made to enable women to gain more experience at governmental levels and to give voice to concerns of rural women.

COMMENTS:

Specific to Bangladesh. Extensive statistical data on roles of women in local government levels.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Women's social protest in Thailand

AUTHOR(S): Pongsapich, A.
BOOK TITLE: Alternatives, volume 2: women's visions and movements
IMPRINT: Rio de Janeiro: Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN); Editora Rosa dos Tempos, 1991. p.255-268.
MATERIAL TYPE: Article in Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: History/Theory

SUMMARY:

This article provides a historical overview of the development of women's organizations in Thailand, focusing on specific periods in which elite groups and grassroots women's organizations were much more vocal on behalf of women and the underprivileged. The author goes on to describe some of the social, cultural and political forces which promoted change and the resulting impact upon Thai women and Thai society.

COMMENTS:

This is a useful reference for readers seeking to understand the historical context of gender relations in contemporary Thai society. By drawing attention to some of the historical tensions between women and men and shifting power relationships, this article contradicts the contention that Thai women have never perceived themselves as disadvantaged relative to men and that inequality between the sexes has always been accepted.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin