COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

Gender relations analysis: a guide for trainers

AUTHOR(S): Rani Parker, A., Lozano, I., Messner, L.A.
IMPRINT: Westport, CT: Save the Children; New York: Women Ink, 1995. 142 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Training Material
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Education

SUMMARY:
This is a manual for a five day gender training workshop for community workers which focuses on the importance of understanding gender roles and relationships such as the division of labour, access and control of resources, and power in decision making. The manual is divided into three sections. The first outlines key gender concepts and includes references for further reading. Section 2 includes a session overview, daily schedule, detailed instructions for facilitating training activities, facilitator's flipcharts or overheads, and hand-outs for participants. Section 3 contains additional activities from Save teams from different countries which can be used to enrich training of trainers workshops.

COMMENTS:
Clearly laid out and easy to follow, this reference will be invaluable for both new and experienced gender trainers. The strength of this workshop manual lies in its participatory and critical approach to gender training. Clearly promoting the empowerment of women, this is one of the few training manuals to link gender inequity and power relations. Training activities are grounded in participants' own experience and conclusions are not pre-determined.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Gender sensitive planning: what, why and how in Nepal

AUTHOR(S): Shrestha, S. L.
IMPRINT: Kathmandu: Women's Awareness Centre Nepal (WACN), 1994. 86 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development

SUMMARY:
The author uses concepts such as condition and position, practical needs and strategic interests, division of labour, and access and control of benefits and resources to analyze gender relations in Nepal. The final section of the book describes how modified forms of gender tools such as the Harvard Framework, Moser method and the Gender Analysis Matrix can be applied to development projects.

COMMENTS:
This book provides valuable insights into the situation of women in Nepal as well as concrete examples which show how gender concepts can be applied. One weakness is that the author does not provide enough information for people unfamiliar with gender analysis to use the tools independently, nor are the tools clearly footnoted so that interested readers can consult the original publications.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Gender sensitivity in PRA

AUTHOR(S): Olson, Robert
JOURNAL: World Neighbors in Action: a newsletter for project personnel, Vol 24 No 2E, 8 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Journal Issue, Training Material
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: PRA/RRA

SUMMARY:
This newsletter summarizes longer papers written by World Neighbors staff describing how to use Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) activities to discuss gender issues with rural people. Examples of the use of mapping, 24 hour activity calendar, decision making, and access and control matrixes are provided.

COMMENTS:
The articles offer a clear, concise introduction to PRA and gender issues. Users who are not experienced with PRA or familiar with the application of these gender concepts, however, will most likely need to consult other references before implementing these activities. All of the examples appear to come from Africa. The newsletter states that an earlier issue of World Neighbors in Action describes some of the activities in more detail (Vol 24 No 1E)

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Gender training with men

AUTHOR(S): Bhasin, K.
IMPRINT: New Delhi: FFCH; FAO South Asian Programme, 1996. 16 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Discussion Paper
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Education

SUMMARY:
Paper presented at the Gender Training Assessment Meeting, Port Dickson, Malaysia, July 7-9, 1996. Sponsored by the Asian and Pacific Development Centre.

This article summarizes the experiences Bhasin and her co-facilitators have had in conducting six workshops for male administrators in India, Bangladesh and Nepal. She outlines the reasons which motivated them to begin gender training from a Southern perspective. The remainder of the article describes male participants' reactions to various components of the workshop and the facilitators' feelings and responses. The article concludes by highlighting the differences between gender workshops for women and men, and provides some suggestions for facilitators.

COMMENTS:
From setting the agenda, to introductions, making the personal political, challenging myths, negotiating the meaning of facts and experiences, Bhasin describes a critical approach to adult education in action. This article offers insights about the obstacles and barriers confronting facilitators conducting training with men; such as the belief that they already know everything they need to know, difficulty in discussing personal issues, or reluctance to apply theory to their own experience. Bhasin somewhat reluctantly concludes that male trainers may be more effective gender trainers with men and that a less direct, less "confrontational" approach may be necessary to foster attitudinal change.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Homefront: a media campaign on gender issues

PRODUCER/CREATOR: Carribean News Agency (CANA), with CARICOM, UNIFEM (Caribbean), UNICEF, Women and Development Unit, University of the West Indies (WAND).
LENGTH: 120 five-minute units.
DATE: July, 1994-September, 1995
DISTRIBUTOR: Carribean News Agency, Ltd. (CANA), Beckles Road, St. Michael, Barbados, West Indies
MATERIAL TYPE: Audio Tapes
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development

SUMMARY:
The product of a Caribbean Communications Strategy initiated during preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China, 1995), Homefront represents a process of co-operation among several institutions (governmental, funding, media and educational) guided by a women's political agenda.

The campaign demonstrates that journalists operating in the mainstream can make spaces for alternative programming modules with creative results. In terms of content, the interviews with women and men living and working within rural and urban communities weave professional assessment, facts and figures into a fabric of local knowledge. Most striking is the recognition of these usually ignored sources of expertise on development.

The series contains broad contextual introductory units on the development model as "a new annex in an old house"; units on the status of Caribbean development; and units which specify gender questions about the direction of Caribbean society. The two sided objective of public education and public input gives "voice" to gender and development where it is most lived, in everyday social relations.

COMMENTS:
These five-minute units designed as modules in local programming or as fillers, were used extensively by radio stations in the Eastern Caribbean. They present a range of views on the gender power issues in the English speaking Caribbean.

Reviewed By: Nan Peacocke, WAND


International seminar: gender-sensitive planning in rural development - Usa River, Tanzania - Final Report

AUTHOR(S): Engelhardt, Eva
IMPRINT: Feldafing, Germany: Deutsche Stiftung fur Internationale Entwicklung (DSE), Zentralstelle fur Ernahrung und Landwirtschaft (ZEL), 1996, 173 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Conference Proceedings
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Economics, Environment, Human Rights. PRA/RRA

SUMMARY:
This document contains the proceedings of the international seminar on gender-sensitive planning in rural development which took place in Usa River, Tanzania, in March 1996. Notable contents include aims and tools of gender analysis, gender-sensitive goal-oriented planning, and some aspects of a political framework for gender sensitive planning in a rural setting. The seminar was based on participatory methods.

COMMENTS:
In this book, experiences of gender-sensitive planning are drawn from various parts of Africa, as reflected by the participants. Participants were drawn from South Africa, Tanzania, Lesotho, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Cameroon and Kenya. Field visits were conducted in Tanzania. It prescribes a course of action in gender planning in rural areas.

Reviewed By: Rose Maro, Co-operative College Women's Documentation Centre, Moshi


Learning from each other: gender-focused visits by staff from agencies in the GOOD network

AUTHOR(S): The GOOD Core Group
IMPRINT: London: GOOD (Gender Orientation on Development), 1996. 29 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Advisory report
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Organizational Development

SUMMARY:
A summary of findings from visits made to 24 countries between 1987 and 1994. The introduction gives suggestions on carrying out a gender-focused visit. The visits documented were all made by staff of European ecumenical agencies.

Reviewed By: Fiona Thomas, GOOD Coordinator


Let us solve our problems ourselves

IMPRINT: Kathmandu: Save the Children, US - Nepal Field Office, 1993. 9 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Flip Chart
LANGUAGE: Nepali
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Savings & Credit, Early Childhood

SUMMARY:
Dilmaya lives with her husband and children in rural Nepal. She wants to utilize her weaving skills to generate extra income for her family. Over time, Dilmaya opens a day care centre with 5 other like-minded women and starts producing baskets from bamboo products. Other women join Dilmaya. They are generating extra income and are able to send their children to the day care centre and to school afterwards.

COMMENTS:
This was adapted from a real life situation from Tandrang, Gorkha. This flip chart is being used in training, i.e. group formation, early childhood education and skill training.

Reviewed By: Keshab Khanal, Save the Children US - Nepal Field Office


Mujer campesina y organizacion rural en Colombia

AUTHOR(S): Medrano, Diana and Villar, Rodrigo
IMPRINT: Bogota: CEREC,1988.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: Spanish
SUBJECTS: Community Development

SUMMARY:
Uses three case studies in Colombia to examine women (campesinas) and their role in social change. Issues span intra-household bargaining and women's organizations, to traditional feminine roles.

Reviewed By: Nanci Lee, International Rural Development Planning, University of Guelph


My grievances

PRODUCER/CREATOR: Save the Children, US - Nepal Field Office
DISTRIBUTOR: Kathmandu: Save the Children, US - Nepal Field Office
MATERIAL TYPE: Poster, 22" x 14", Training Material
LANGUAGE: Nepali
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Economics, Environment, Food Production

SUMMARY:
Colour poster showing the many labours of women in the context of rural Nepal.

COMMENTS:
Used for training, especially in gender training and with women's groups to raise awareness of the situation of women.

Reviewed By: Keshab Khanal, Save the Children, US - Nepal Field Office


NAVAMAGA: training activities for group building, health and income generation

AUTHOR(S): Svendsen, Dian Seslar and Wijetilleke, Sujatha
IMPRINT: Colombo: Women's Bureau of Sri Lanka; Washington: Overseas Education Fund, 1983. 156 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Training Material
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Education, Group Building, Health, Microenterprise, Monitoring and Evaluation

SUMMARY:
Created by Sri Lankan rural development workers, this handbook is designed to assist in the design and implementation of training at the grassroots level. This handbook encompasses a wide range of topics that are intended to incorporate technical information with participatory training techniques. The goal is to involve women in problem solving and decision making that will help them develop the skills to plan and implement their own projects.

Topics in this handbook include: group building, communication, co-operative problem solving, women's leadership, training design, planning methods, bookkeeping, resource identification, monitoring and evaluation. Teaching methods include the use of role plays and case studies. Case studies which implement these models include: agricultural projects in livestock and crops; health programs such as a village health needs survey, preventative health care and first aid.

COMMENTS:
Although developed in Sri Lanka, the authors promote the use of this manual in any rural development setting. Exercises, step-by-step training activities, and basic training materials (drawings, charts, etc) are included.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


On our feet: taking steps to challenge women's oppression: a handbook on gender and popular education workshops

AUTHOR(S): Mackenzie, Liz
IMPRINT: Bellville, South Africa: University of the Western Cape, Centre for Adult and Continuing Education (CACE), 1993. 171 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Manual, Training Material
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Education, Group Building

SUMMARY:
Grounded in a feminist approach to gender relations, this manual based on training workshops in South Africa uses popular education techniques to empower women to examine the roots of their oppression and develop collective strategies for change. Chapters on designing and facilitating participatory workshops are included, as well as instructions for specific workshop activities. A glossary of gender terms used in the manual is provided.

COMMENTS:
Instructions and background information for familiar workshop activities such as "The Gender Tree" can be found in this manual. Practical techniques for building trust and sharing power within a group could be used in any training program or group setting. The workshop focuses primarily on analysis of personal and societal issues related to gender inequality and does not address the application of gender concepts in development projects.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Participatory training for women

IMPRINT: New Delhi: Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA), 1989. 151 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Education, Group Building, Health, Monitoring and Evaluation.

SUMMARY:
To ensure greater participation of women in the development process, a variety of training needs have been identified. This handbook presents several case studies describing training models that focus on empowering women, building self-esteem and collective action.

Both urban and rural women's organisations in India are represented. The rural development programs include: community health worker training from SEWA; extension worker training with tribal and small farmers with RISE in Andhra Pradesh; MYRADA; ASTHA; and JAGORI.

Each case study includes background information on the organization, strategies developed, training process and methodology, evaluation, and examples of action plans and exercises.

Common strategies and problems with all participating organizations are discussed, followed by recommendations to enhance projects working at the grassroots level.

COMMENTS:
The case studies do not go into great detail, but do provide a good range of strategies for working in different situations.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Redesigning a settlement agency in Sri Lanka to promote participation of women in its management

AUTHOR(S):Raby, Namika
BOOK TITLE: Development, displacement and resettlement: focus on Asian Experiences (edited by Hari Mohan Mathur with the collaboration of Michael M. Cernea)
IMPRINT: New Delhi: Vikas, 1995. p. 190-205.
MATERIAL TYPE: Chapter in Book.
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECT: Community Development

SUMMARY:
This article considers ways in which assessment and evaluation procedures of an organization can be developed to ensure that women's full participation is integrated. This requires an identification of constraints that hinder women's participation in this process at both the upper management and grassroots operational levels, followed by an analysis of how these constraints can be removed.

As a case study, the Mahaweli Development Programme is examined. This is a resettlement scheme designed to place landless people in an irrigated agricultural zone. Potential advantages of this scheme are studied to find ways in which women's participation can be integrated in areas of farm labour, home gardens and health care. Unitary management models are described and promoted to recruit women.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


The road to empowerment

AUTHOR(S): Kabira, Wanjiku Mukabi, and Muthoni, Wanjira, editors.
IMPRINT: Nairobi: African Women's Development and Communication Network (FEMNET)
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECT: Community Development, Education, Law and Legislation

SUMMARY:
This book is an attempt to consolidate the efforts of the FEMNET Gender Sensitization Team which was established in 1988. It addresses some of the issues that can influence the creation of a just, democratic and humane culture. It also looks at different approaches for moving towards empowerment for women.

COMMENTS:
The book provides a framework within which the designer, planner or implementer of any project or program can systematically look at women's roles as a basis for development. It is useful in helping both women and men recognize women's roles and the traditional laws which have oppressed them.

Reviewed By: Isri Yusuf Adhan, KIPOC-NGO of Pastoral People, Loliondo, Tanzania


Selected women's programmes in Sierra Leone: A Handbook Prepared By the Women's Commission in Adult Education

IMPRINT: Freetown: Sierra Leone Adult Education Association (SLADEA), (1988?). 227 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Community Development, Fisheries, Health, Microenterprise, Monitoring & Evaluation, Savings & Credit

SUMMARY:
A survey was conducted in 1988 to evaluate programs working with women in Sierra Leone. A sample of programs from most regions of the country are presented, most of which are active in rural areas. In addition to a description of activities, participants were asked to evaluate the effectiveness of projects and examine how they identify and overcome problems.

Income generating projects are the most widespread. However, there is still pronounced sex-role stereotyping in these activities and there is room for growth in the use of appropriate technology. Agriculture projects are prevalent, but in many cases the shift from subsistence to cash crops has not improved the nutritional status of women and children. There appears to be a shortage of locally based health programmes. Most health projects are still administered by international agencies such as UNICEF. In general, organizational problems identified include equipment shortages and the need for management skills.

Several recommendations are presented. Emphasis is placed on the need for self-reliance and on the utilization of local resources that could help enhance the sustainability of policies directed toward assisting women's programs. In addition, the survey process itself is evaluated and suggestions for improvement for future research projects are made. Statistical summaries, a description of the questionnaire and responses, and a directory of participating organizations are included.

COMMENTS:
The information is drawn from Sierra Leone only, but some of the information provided is useful for the development of similar monitoring and evaluation surveys.

Reviewed By: Catherine Irving, Coady


Towards gender equity in development: strategies and tools

IMPRINT: Helsinki: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, Department for International Development Co-operation, 1995.
MATERIAL TYPE: Resource Kit, 4 booklets, approx. 35 p. each
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Agriculture, Forestry, Water & Sanitation

SUMMARY:
This kit consists of 4 booklets summarizing the experience of the Finnish Department for International Development Cooperation. Guidelines on Gender Analysis (1995) outlines the theory and implementation of gender analysis in development projects using the KARI Assessment of gender-based knowledge, activities, resources and incentives. Looking at Gender, Agriculture and Rural Development (1995) presents case studies illustrating gender issues in agricultural projects, explains the use of the Rapid Gender Analysis tool for gathering data and offers suggestions for integrating gender analysis throughout the project cycle. Looking at Gender, Water Supply and Sanitation (1994) discusses the need for using gender analysis in water and sanitation projects, outlines the conditions which enable gender sensitive implementation, compares and contrasts water and sanitation projects in urban and rural areas, and provides guidelines for gender implementation throughout the project cycle. Looking at Gender and Forestry (1993) is similar to the previous 2 volumes, but provides more information about the integration of gender at the policy, institution and field levels.

COMMENTS:
The most recent publication, Guidelines, provides one of the most concise overviews of gender theory and its importance in designing development projects that can be found in any publication. Looking at Gender, Agriculture contains excellent examples from countries around the world of gender analysis in the field which could be used for training workshops. The use of basic English and subtitles enables these books to be used by readers of English as a foreign language as well. I think that these are some of the best GAD references currently in print. The kit is available free of charge by writing to the Dept. of International Development Co-operation.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin


Weaving for alternatives

AUTHOR(S): Local Weaving Development Project of the Alternative Technology Association (ATA) and WAYANG
IMPRINT: Bangkok: WAYANG, 1995. 153 p.
MATERIAL TYPE: Book, Case Study
LANGUAGE: English
SUBJECTS: Community Development, Environment, Microenterprise

SUMMARY:
This book describes the experiences of women weavers and a grassroots community development organisation in Northeastern Thailand. The first part of the book and the accompanying video provide a detailed introduction to Thai sericulture, natural dyes and the use of indigenous technology and local knowledge. The second part of the book traces the origins of the project from the Alternative Technology Association to the establishment of the new alternative enterprise group, Pan Mai, and shows how community development projects evolve in real life, branching out in different directions as members gain knowledge and experience. Finally, the last section of the book looks at the impact of the project on gender relations and outlines how women have moved from passivity to empowerment within their families and communities. The book concludes with a short description of other "Alternative Development Initiatives", projects and networks in Southeast Asia.

COMMENTS:
Although the book would have benefited from judicious editing and a greater integration between chapters, at least two Thai resource people educated in the West have commented that it was this book which persuaded them that gender relations were indeed an issue for Thai development organisations. The book shows how the inequality of women is the result of a complex web of economic, social, cultural and environmental factors, and points out the barriers to establishing a self-supporting, co-operative enterprise. More detailed information about the impact of the project on the local environment and additional description of the educational process the organisation used with the weaving groups would have enhanced the case study. The use of direct quotations from the members of the weaving groups adds power to the text. The translated "Songs of Isarn" used in the video and included at the end of the book provide insight into the traditional culture of northeastern Thailand.

Reviewed By: Nancy Peters, Northeast Thailand Foundation, Surin.